Details: DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is found in every cell of every organism, be it an animal, plant, fungus, bacteria or archaebacteria. DNA is made of units called nucleotides, which each have a sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine). The DNA molecules are very long, but within them, certain smaller sections of nucleotides carry the instructions to make proteins; these sections of DNA are called genes.
Through the processes of transcription (to make RNA) and translation, proteins are made from the DNA code in a gene. Proteins are involved in the expression of traits. Therefore, a change to the mushroom's DNA can change the encoded protein or enzyme. A change to the right enzyme could affect a process like browning.
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